Completed Studies

TetraSOD® activates the antioxidant response pathway, Nrf2, in human cells
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Ramírez, P., Mantecón, L., Unamunzaga, C., Infante, C.
TetraSOD® activates the antioxidant response pathway in human cells: An in vitro approach. Unpublished, 2018
In this work, we examined the antioxidant bioactivity of TetraSOD® in muscle cells (Normal Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts, HSMMs) using an in vitro approach. We detected an induction of primary antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPx, and CAT) which was further related to gene expression up-regulation of a selected set of genes involved in response against oxidative stress, including NRF2 and HMOX1.
It has been demonstrated that TetraSOD® exerts its antioxidant capacity via the master antioxidant switch NRF2/HMOX-1 pathway, selected genes being additionally regulated at transcriptional level.
TetraSOD® induces the cells endogenous production of SOD, CAT and GPX.
TetraSOD® activates the internal antioxidant system of the organism (indirect antioxidant) in contrast to other antioxidants that exert its antioxidant activity by directly scavenging free radicals (that is, there has been only demonstrated that they have antioxidant capacity in an in vitro test like DPPH or ORAC protocols).
Benefits of TetraSOD® in muscle tissue using a genomic expression platform for oxidative stress
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Ramírez, P., Mantecón, L., Unamunzaga, C., Infante, C.
Evaluation of the potential bioactivity of TetraSOD® in muscle tissue using an in vitro approach. Unpublished, 2018
In this study TetraSOD® is able to modify the expression of different genes associated with oxidative stress protection (SOD1 and FOXO3 expression), angiogenesis and myogenesis processes (KLF2 and VEGF) and inhibition of inflammatory processes associated to muscle damage caused by strong muscle efforts (IL-1R mediated pathway) in human muscle cells.
TetraSOD® as a beneficial supplement to be used by people exerting regular exercise.
Clinical trial: Effects of TetraSOD® as food supplement in athletes
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Rodrigo Bellido, F.J.
Effects of Tetraselmis chuii intake on oxidative stress in athletes. Extremadura University, Thesis, 2017.
Effects of TetraSOD® consumption in a total of 32 male football players with a minimum of 4-year previous experience in football training and subjected to regular training and competition during the span of the study
Supplementation with TetraSOD® provoked the main following effects (Rodrigo Bellido, 2017):

- Decrease in fat body mass (-8,8%)

- Improvement in performance during the effort stress test
HEART RATE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD: Significant decrease in heart rate during activity (-3,6%)
HEART RATERECOVERY PHASE: Significant decrease in heart rate 3-minutes post activity (-4,2%)
HAEMOGLOBIN O2 CARRYING CAPACITY: Significant increase in haemoglobin levels (+4,9)

- Effect against oxidative stress
VITAMIN E LEVELS OXIDATIVE STRESS: Significant increase in vitamin E levels (+13,4%)
The consumption of TetraSOD® for 1 month obtained similar or higher results in Haemoglobin without and O2 consumption when compared to a high-altitude or high intensity training for at least three months.

Ongoing Studies:

Open label Double blind placebo clinical study in sports performance and recovery.
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Preclinical study of the effects of TetraSOD® on oxidative stress parameters in rats nourished with cafeteria diet
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